Modern Art
Although modern art is a broad term, it can generally be said to have begun in nineteenth-century Paris as artists moved away from the traditions and hierarchies that had governed painting for centuries. Instead, they sought out new ways to express themselves and the world around them.

Neoclassicism
A movement in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Europe focused on reviving the order, logic, and restraint that characterized the art of ancient Rome and Greece.

Romanticism
In response to the austerity and sobriety of Neoclassical art, it was a movement that focused on emotion and subjectivity; artists often used expressive color and mark making to enhance the portrayal of their subject matter.

Realism
Characterized by direct and unidealized depictions of modern life, in contrast to the idealized Romantic view of the world.

The Impressionists
An art movement characterized by sketchy brushstrokes and bright colors meant to translate the effects of natural light and capturing quick impressions of contemporary life

Post-Impressionism
A movement that emerged in response to Impressionism and encompasses a range of styles. Some artists focused on esoteric, dreamlike subjects rather than ones taken from contemporary life; others experimented with new ways of using color and form.

Fauvism
Focused on using bold, non-natural colors and loose brushstrokes to respond subjectively to subject matter. The movement’s name comes from the French word for “wild beast”—a phrase a critic used to describe these artists’ paintings in an early exhibition.

Cubism
A movement started by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in the early twentieth century that focused on reducing objects or figures to basic geometric forms, often in order to present different perspectives within the same image.